• Scholar and sages imparted knowledge and information was passed on orally from one generation to the next.
  • After introduction of language and letters, people started to write on palm leaves and bark of trees and spread the literature (Vedas). Make scriptures on caves and temples. Community centres acted as places of learning.
  • Gurukul system started in teacher’s house or temples, monasteries, mosques, or under a tree. The guru imparted knowledge about religion, scriptures, philosophy, literature, warfare, medicine, etc.
  • Higher education centres like Nalanda, Kashkashian, Ujjain, etc. were established by the then rulers where subjects like art, architecture, painting, logic, grammar, philosophy, astronomy, law, medicine, were studied.
  • After foreign invasion, early Bahaman scripts were replaced by Arabic and Persian.
  • After the British and Portuguese came they started the modern education, which is being followed even today. They started the modern education system to help produce more clerks for their clerical works, by teaching math's and science, and thus ignored the traditional ways of education, losing the ties with nature and the guru himself.


1 Pradyumna Bhavsar

2 Pradyumna Bhavsar